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Friday, July 31, 2020 | History

2 edition of Interactions between mantle plumes and mid-ocean ridges found in the catalog.

Interactions between mantle plumes and mid-ocean ridges

Jennifer E. Georgen

Interactions between mantle plumes and mid-ocean ridges

constraints from geophysics, geochemistry, and geodynamical modeling

by Jennifer E. Georgen

  • 62 Want to read
  • 24 Currently reading

Published by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Woods Hole, Mass .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Mid-ocean ridges.,
  • Mantle plumes.

  • Edition Notes

    Statementby Jennifer E. Georgen.
    SeriesMIT/WHOI -- 2001-08., MIT/WHOI (Series) -- 2001-08.
    ContributionsMassachusetts Institute of Technology., Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
    The Physical Object
    Pagination222 p. :
    Number of Pages222
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL16033224M

    The mantle's flow is driven by the descent of cold tectonic plates during subduction and the complementary ascent of plumes of hot material from lower levels. The surface of the Earth reflects stretching, thickening and bending of the tectonic plates as they interact. festation of rising convective plumes in the mantle [Morgan, ]. The longevity of such hotspots, their stationary nature, the simple age progression of volcanism in the island chains, and the geochemical distinctions between oceanic island basalts (OIB) and mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) are .

    A mid-ocean ridge (MOR) is a seafloor mountain system formed by plate typically has a depth of ~ 2, meters (8, ft) and rises about two kilometers above the deepest portion of an ocean feature is where seafloor spreading takes place along a divergent plate rate of seafloor spreading determines the morphology of the crest of the mid-ocean ridge and its. The interaction of mid-ocean ridges and nearby mantle plumes (hotspots) causes numerous changes along the ridge, above the plume, and on the seafloor in between them. Along a hotspot affected ridge, geochemical observations show variations in noble gas and isotope ratios and trace element concentrations [Hanan et al., ;.

    This isotopic relationship, together with mantle tomographic studies, suggests that the source material of 11°20′N lavas may have come from the Hawaiian plume. This “distal plume-ridge interaction” between the EPR and Hawaii contrasts with the “proximal plume-ridge interactions” seen along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. ridge systems. Still, many basic aspects of plume-ridge interaction remain enigmatic. Outstanding problems pertain to whether plumes flow toward and along mid-ocean ridges in narrow pipe-like channels or as broad expanding gravity currents, the origin of geochemical mixing trends observed along ridges, and how mantle.


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Interactions between mantle plumes and mid-ocean ridges by Jennifer E. Georgen Download PDF EPUB FB2

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Woods Hole. Abstract This thesis studies interactions between mid-ocean ridges and mantle plumes using geophysics, geochemistry, and geodynamical modeling.

Chapter 1 investigates the effects of the Marion and Bouvet hotspots on the ultra-slow spreading, highly-segmented Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR).Cited by: 1. The interaction of mantle plume driven flow with upwelling flow due to a nearby mid-ocean ridge occurs for many mantle plumes including Galápagos and Iceland.

Schematic representation of the deep plume and shallow mantle upwelling processes at mid-ocean ridges. a, Schematic of interactions between a deeply sourced plume and a MOR. Black circle with red. Interactions among plumes, mantle circulation and mid-ocean ridges - NASA/ADS Mantle plumes are generally considered to have little influence on surface processes beyond the formation of large igneous provinces (LIPs) and hotspot tracks at locations independent of tectonic Cited by: 1.

The geochemical signatures of mid-ocean ridge basalts and seismic tomographic data show that upper-mantle temperatures are elevated at significant distances from ridge–plume interactions Cited by: Interactions among mid-ocean ridges, plumes and Large Igneous Provinces.

Plate tectonic motions are commonly considered to be driven by slab pull at subduction zones and ridge push at mid-ocean ridges (MORs), with motion punctuated by plumes of hot material rising from the lower mantle.

Abstract Hot spot–mid‐ocean ridge interactions cause many of the largest structural and chemical anomalies in Earth's ocean basins. Correlated geophysical and geochemical anomalies are widely explained by mantle plumes that deliver hot and compositionally distinct material toward and along mid‐ocean ridges.

Mantle plumes Localized upwelling currents of solid rock that are hotter, thus less dense, than the surrounding mantle.

Plate tectonics provides a framework for interpreting volcanism at plate. LIP clustering around ridge plume interactions in the Pacific Ocean is less clear (Fig. 1a). A feasible explanation is that mantle upwelling at slower spreading ridges is strong enough to focus plumes towards the ridge but insu˚ciently strong to capture them entirely, enabling surface hotspots to form proximal to the MOR (ref.

15). The geochemical signatures of mid-ocean ridge basalts and seismic tomographic data show that upper-mantle temperatures are elevated at significant distances from ridge-plume interactions, indicating a far-field, indirect influence of plume-ridge interactions on the upper-mantle Author: Michael Chin.

ascending plumes approach lithospheric plates, interactions between the two inevitably result. Such interactions are most prominent near ocean ridges where the lithosphere is thin and the effect of plumes is best revealed.

“Plume-ridge interaction” has been a hot topic in recent years, and much effort has been expended in this area []. Quantifying the asymmetry of crustal accretion provides a complementary approach to that based on geochemical 12 and other geophysical d 14 in helping to unravel how mantle plumes.

Cite this chapter as: () Mantle plume-mid-ocean ridge interaction in the North Atlantic. In: Iceland Geodynamics. Springer Praxis Books. [1] In many hot spot–ridge systems, formation of off‐axis volcanic chains or lineaments occurs between the hot spot centers and nearby mid‐ocean ridges.

In some cases, such as Galápagos, Kerguelen, and possibly the Mid‐Pac Mountains and Tristan, these lineaments appear to meet in a focus zone near the hot spot and fan outward in the direction of the ridge axis. At mid-ocean ridges, partial melting occurs mainly by decompression melt- ing, although some mid-ocean ridges (e.g., Iceland) are influenced by interaction with hot mantle plumes [e.g., Bijwaard and Spakman, ; Wolfe et al., ].

Oceanic crust forms as melts crystallize at. Due to the influence of strong ridge tensile forces, the off-axis plume magmatic mantle would flow to the ridge axis and undergo decompression melting, resulting in the depletion of the highly incompatible elements but the invariability of the isotopic compositions due to the relatively long half-life of the radiogenic elements.

Hot plumes were considered by Morgan (, ) to be basic components of a whole-mantle thermal convection regime that guides and helps maintain volcanism along spreading ridges. These plumes have been considered to be the main or even total (Yamamoto.

Chemical interaction between the core and the mantle sources of plumes could be such a process. Core-mantle interaction does not affect lithophile elements such as Nd, and is thus compatible with the observed lack of coupling between W and Nd.

Furthermore, the correlations between W and 3 He/ 4 He ratios (Mundl et al., Kelley et al. (), Composition of plume-influenced mid-ocean ridge lavas and glasses from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, East Pacific Rise, Galapagos Spreading Center, and Gulf of Aden Plumes of mantle-derived material impinge on or otherwise interact with oceanic spreading centers in many locations throughout the world.

chemical observations show the e¡ects of mantle plumes on nearby mid-ocean ridges [4^10], and a number of modeling studies have addressed plume^ridge interactions (e.g.

[10^23]). However, with the exception of parameterized numerical in-vestigations of the interaction between mantle stirring and ascending plumes by Steinberger.The region in the outlined rectangle represent the mid-ocean ridge (Steven Earle, “Physical Geology”).

Spreading is hypothesized to start within a continental area with up-warping or doming of crust related to an underlying mantle plume or series of mantle plumes. The buoyancy of the mantle plume material creates a dome within the crust.A hotspot in a collision zone without a mantle plume.

Interaction between local magma ocean evolution and mantle dynamics on Mars Jurdy large igneous provinces layer lithosphere lower mantle magma mantle convection mantle plumes margin melting anomalies mid-ocean ridge MORB N-MORB Natland oceanic crust olivine Pacific Pacific 5/5(1).